Can BIM Help Overcome Barriers?
BIM, Disputes are often considered an inevitable part of the project lifecycle by many researchers, and while preventative measures can be taken, it is not always possible to avoid them entirely. In such cases, an appropriate resolution technique must be adopted. Typically, the resolution process involves referring to a resolution method either internally or via a third party, which may be binding by law. It is important to investigate the disputed claims thoroughly and choose the appropriate method to ensure successful project delivery and maintain the industry’s reputation.
There are many debates surrounding the preparation of disputed claims and the resolution process. To effectively resolve disputes, proper preparation and presentation of the incurred events are necessary. All required information should be acquired to estimate and present the claim smoothly. BIM can be used as an integrated digital model of the project, which stores all project information in detail. Retrieval of the required information for disputed issues can easily be obtained from the model. The construction schedule, change orders, variations, specifications, and financial data such as cash flow, along with multidisciplinary drawings, can also be embedded in the BIM model. As the model stores all information at every particular time and phase, disputes can be concluded quickly and accurately.
In this research, disputes and resolution processes are deeply studied using a case study and literature review. A BIM model is created to investigate the benefits of overcoming the challenges during claiming and resolution of disputes. It is observed that claims can be prepared faster and more accurately in a visualized environment provided by BIM. Furthermore, substantiating and presenting disputes for resolution purposes is incomparable to traditional methods. The conclusions recommend that even if the project did not adopt a BIM model earlier, one can be created for a smooth process during claiming and resolution of disputes.
Reference : Dr. Samer SKAIK
Outline Details of the Project
The studied case involves a residential and commercial building project constructed in Dubai / UAE. The contractor was selected as per the traditional procurement route and via the lowest bid. The duration granted was 13.5 months. Unfortunately, the project incurred many incidents that transformed in to disputes. The duration to complete the project prolonged 2 more years than the contractual time frame. The resolution was made via arbitration causing the client and the contractor to spend effort on the project even after completion.
The reviewed documentation included work schedules, site reports, payment certificates, project NOC’s (no objection certificates) and authority permits, correspondences between client and contractor, correspondences between consultant and contractor, 2D drawings and contract documents. The disputed events are investigated in depth, to understand the effects on the project’s delivery. The major disputed incidents were as follows: · Unforeseen site conditions: Exposed cables during shoring and excavation works. The contractor suspends the works until the local electricity provider changes the routes. · Change orders from the client: Revised floors and conversion of units from residential to commercial. The works, suspends partially, and faces disruption on linked activities. · Extra work request from the client: An extra floor added to the building. Project went under revision, and new authority approvals obtained. · Payments delays: Client suspended interim payments. The issue caused cash flow problems, and the contractor suspended the activity on site.
The contractor raised claims which were not incorporated by the client. The engineer’s recommendation did not satisfy both parties, and the arbitration method was used as the resolution, as stated in the contract.
From the existing 2D CAD drawings a BIM model was created. The studied documentations and created model provided both qualitative and quantitative measures. This data is used to evaluate the comparative benefit of the BIM model in claiming and dispute resolution. To investigate the advantages of having a BIM model during the claiming and dispute resolution process, a comparative analysis approach was conducted with BIM and no BIM. Also, two BIM models were created to spark the differences of the original and as built situations.
The original and as-built drawings were obtained and modelled. All the information required was then extracted from the models. The combined as built versus original models were used to make the issues explicit during claiming. The obtained BIM models and colour coded drawings were evaluated both qualitatively and quantitatively. Change claims, variations, impacts of events made clearly visible in the comparative analysis. Events were visualized resulting easy to understand, estimate, comment and decide on the incidents. As mentioned earlier, the claims and resolution process counts on documentation heavily, in order to fully understand the real impacts. The models overcome this sophisticated phase.
The comparative benefit was also shown in following pie charts. Figures 3 show the steps and durations taken. The comparison is made between BIM-led and traditional approaches, for claim preparation. The steps are taken in order to submit claims to the arbitrational tribunal. The steps and durations are shown in the pie chart. Total duration taken for the preparations was 27 days, which included site visit, document study and estimations. Same process was gone through further to the creation of the BIM model. The BIM model created as shown in the figure 2 is used during the claim preparation for the dispute resolution. The saved duration was 13 days, being 48% of the traditional method. The major time saving was from the information collection steps, which included site visits and correspondence analysis. The estimations were also found more accurate and made on a faster platform.
Case Study Outcome
Further to the study, it is seen that; the major causes of the disputes are due to reasons that could be avoided through a properly stored, retrieved and presented information platform. Moreover, substantiation of the claim is actually visualizing the incidents to evaluate the liable and compensate able party. The biggest challenge of the tribunal during the resolution was fully understanding the effects and causes of the incidents. During the arbitration proceedings; we have noted that the process is also quite old and did not acquire new age techniques. The plaintiff and the defendant were trying to claim certain issues that they do not have the right to claim for. Both parties submitted documentation of almost everything; 3 to 4 binders, consisting of hundreds of pages. Considering the number of documents used in a project, it was causing serious disturbance for resolution authority. The discussion between the claimant and the defended usually stuck in certain activities or chronology and the events are being criticized in a tendentious manner. The presentation of the actual situations in a particular time was also great hassle. Although computer aided schedules were being used during the project’s
procurement, comparing to a BIM model, the detail was less, and reflection on the arbitration process was low. A BIM model created in the project, even during the dispute settlement process, helped to identify the actual incidents and impacts of the incurred events. The prepared claims were more accurate, easy to present and clearly visible to the resolution authority
Yes, Building Information Modeling (BIM) can help overcome barriers in the construction industry. BIM is a digital tool that facilitates the creation, management, and sharing of information about a building or infrastructure project throughout its entire life cycle. Here are some ways BIM can help overcome barriers:
BIM can help overcome communication barriers by providing a common platform for all project stakeholders to access and share information in real-time. This can help to reduce misunderstandings and errors, leading to better collaboration and improved project outcomes.
BIM can help overcome coordination barriers by allowing different disciplines to work together more effectively. By creating a shared digital model of the project, BIM can help ensure that all parties are working from the same set of information, reducing the likelihood of clashes or errors.
Time and cost:
BIM can help overcome time and cost barriers by providing a more accurate and efficient way to plan and execute construction projects. By simulating construction processes and identifying potential conflicts early in the project life cycle, BIM can help to reduce the likelihood of delays and cost overruns.
BIM can help overcome sustainability barriers by allowing project teams to assess the environmental impact of design decisions and identify opportunities to reduce energy consumption, carbon emissions, and waste.
Overall, BIM has the potential to overcome many of the barriers faced in the construction industry, leading to improved project outcomes, increased efficiency, and reduced costs.
- Increased Adoption: BIM has continued to gain traction in the architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) industry, with more companies adopting it as a standard tool for project delivery.
- Cloud-Based Solutions: Cloud-based BIM solutions are becoming more popular, as they allow for better collaboration and communication between project stakeholders, regardless of their location.
- Integration with Other Technologies: BIM is being integrated with other technologies, such as virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR), to enhance the visualization and communication of design intent.
- Use in Facility Management: BIM is also being used in facility management to help with maintenance and operations, as it provides accurate and up-to-date information about the building’s systems and components.
- Sustainability: BIM is being used to support sustainable design and construction practices, as it enables the analysis of energy usage, environmental impact, and other factors that affect a building’s sustainability.