Defective Buildings and Subsequent Owners
The nature of defective work
Unsurprisingly, defects are one of the major causes of dispute and construction litigation. Dealing with construction failures requires various degrees of familiarity with law, building technology and practice. There is often disagreement when it comes to identifying what a construction defect is. This, of course, will be down to the differing viewpoints and interests of those who are asking the question and/or making the determination. These parties typically include the builder, developer, contractor, subcontractor, material supplier, product manufacturer and homeowner.
In construction and engineering projects the nature and type of defects can vary dramatically, as can the point at which they become apparent. At one end of the scale minor defects can easily be corrected before the building or plant is handed over to the employer, while at the other extreme significant defects may occur long after the original work has been completed and require extensive remedial works to fix.
Defects can arise because the work was not carried out in a ‘good and workmanlike manner’ in accordance with good practice or a particular design, or because the wrong materials have been used – matters which would usually be the responsibility of the building contractor and its supply chain. Alternatively the designer could be at fault, because a particular design is not working in the manner that it should. In the frequently used design and build scenario, the contractor would normally have primary liability for both types of failure – although it may have consequential claims against its designers and supply chain.
A construction defect occurs whenever finished or partially completed construction fails to perform as required by applicable contract documents or accepted standards. It is the bridge whose cables flex and snap, the concrete that is understrength or structurally deficient, the roof that leaks, the adhesives that do not bond and the paint that peels, to name only a few examples.
Obvious vs. Latent Defects
Construction defects can be obvious or latent. Defects such as undersized beams, understrength concrete or coatings failures usually are apparent during construction when liability is clear and the cost of correction is relatively minimal.
Frequently, however, defects are latent. A latent defect exists at the time of construction but is undetected until after (sometimes years after) construction is completed and the structure and its systems are in use.
Defect vs. Manifestation of Defect
A defect often is different from the manifestation of the defect, although generally both must be corrected. The manifestation is the apparent condition of the structure, a component, or the materials that is caused by the construction defect, and which provides evidence of a deeper problem.
It is essential to identify both the manifestation of the defect and the defect itself, because correcting only the symptoms will not correct the problem.
Types of Construction Defects
In a broad sense, a construction defect is any element of a structure that fails to (a) perform as intended, or (b) conform to the contract requirements. There are many types of construction defects, including:
Deviations From Plans and Specifications
Every construction project is built based upon drawings and specifications that tell the contractor what to build and the quality of the materials to use. Construction project drawings include plans prepared by the architect, surveyor and consulting engineers (site plans, structural plans, mechanical plans and electrical plans) as well as more detailed drawings prepared by the contractor, subcontractor or supplier (shop drawings) that are submitted to and approved by the project design professional. The specifications – typically supplied by the project design professional with the plans – provide even more detail not evident from the drawings that identify the materials to be used, the performance requirements for aspects of the project and the methods of application to be employed.
Any material deviation from the plans or specifications is a defect, no matter how well the work was performed, even if the structure and all of its systems perform properly.
The Project or a Component Does Not Work as Intended
A construction defect exists where the structure or any of its systems do not work as intended. This includes the failure to meet performance criteria (such as specifications requiring windows to have a minimal resistance to wind-driven rain or concrete to have a specified strength), the sudden failure of a part of a project (such as a cracked concrete deck, foundation failure, or catastrophic collapse), or any aspect of a project that simply does not work as it should (such as roof leaks, foundation leaks, plumbing leaks, or excessive settlement).
Building Code Violations
All construction must comply with construction and safety standards imposed by law. Failure to comply constitutes a defect in the design or the construction work, or both, even if the structure or systems function as expected. For example, aluminum wiring may work but violate the electrical code. Inadequate space on a landing for building egress may “work” (in the sense that people can leave the building) but still violate the fire code.
Premature deterioration of a project element may be the result of a construction defect. An example would be a roof intended to last twenty years which starts deteriorating after five. However, the same condition may or may not be a construction defect, depending on when it occurs in the life of a building, system or component. For example, a crack in a stucco wall completed six months earlier most likely would be a manifestation of a construction defect. But if the same crack appeared ten years after the wall was completed, it likely would not be a defect but the result of normal wear and tear and poor maintenance.
Liability for Construction Defects
The construction contractor is responsible to perform the construction work needed to complete the project. The contractor hires the subcontractors who carry out the work (such as ironworkers, plumbers, electricians, carpenters, masons, etc.) and purchases the materials needed for construction. He also must choose how the construction will be performed – what methods or techniques will be employed to ensure complete, timely and safe completion of the project. The contractor’s obligations are defined by the construction contract, which provides the basis for liability if the contractor fails to perform as required.
The contractor is required to perform the work fully in accordance with the plans and specifications and in a good and workmanlike manner. Most construction contracts will state these duties explicitly, but even in the absence of specific contract provisions, the law generally implies these duties into every construction contract.
Although a contractor who complies with plans and specifications generally is not responsible for construction defects, an important exception is where the contractor actually knew that a plan or specification was defective. A contractor who knows or should know that compliance with plans and specifications is likely to result in a defect or failure has a duty to bring that deficiency to the owner’s attention before performing the work.
The project designers (architect and engineers) may be engaged for some or all of a bundle of services, ranging from total control over and responsibility for the project to a limited role involving merely preparing a design program or preliminary design scheme. The designers may remain involved throughout the construction process or merely prepare plans for others to execute.
Whatever the designer’s role, a design professional who fails to exercise reasonable care and judgment in performing his or her duties may be liable for resulting construction defects. An obvious example is a structural engineer who miscalculates the loads that will be imposed on finished construction, leading to a structural failure, who will be responsible for that failure and its consequences. Also, design professionals who are contractually required to inspect work for compliance with plans and specifications may be liable for failing to discover defects in construction that could or should have been detected through a reasonable investigation.
Owners typically consider themselves immune from liability for construction defects or failures. The owner’s view is that the designer is obliged to produce plans and specifications that are sufficient for their intended purpose and the contractor is responsible to build the project in accordance with those plans and specifications. However, the owner may be responsible for construction defects in certain circumstances.
For example, an owner who provides project information represents (either explicitly in the construction contract or implicitly as imposed by law) that the information will be accurate. Thus, an owner who inaccurately reports the condition of the building site is responsible for that information in the event that a building failure results.
Also, an owner who utilizes the finished construction in a manner not contemplated in the design cannot complain if that use results in a failure. Typical is the situation where an owner overloads a finished structure with, for example, machinery, storage or other unusual loads. In such cases, the owner’s misuse of the structure or systems may be the cause of any failure, and may bar recovery against either the contractor or designer.
Finally, an owner has a duty to maintain finished construction to prevent failures that might result over time from neglect or deferred maintenance.
Construction defects also can result from a product failure. Adhesives fail, water sealants do not always prevent water intrusion, pipes leak, boilers explode and sprinklers sometimes do not sprinkle. All are construction defects that may result from a product defect or failure.
Where a product defect or failure causes a construction defect and that defect causes personal injury or property damage, the product manufacturer will be liable in tort for the resulting harm. Where a construction defects causes only economic losses (such as lost revenue from a project or damages for construction delays caused by the defective product), claimants may seek remedies under the Uniform Commercial Code, which generally allows the owner to seek economic damages from the manufacturer for breach of both express and implied warranties that the product will function as intended.
Q1: What causes disputes and litigation in the construction industry?
A1: Disputes and litigation in the construction industry are primarily caused by defects in construction work. These defects can lead to disagreements among the parties involved, such as builders, developers, contractors, subcontractors, material suppliers, product manufacturers, and homeowners.
Q2: How do construction defects vary in their nature and appearance?
A2: Construction defects can vary in nature and appearance. Minor defects, which can be easily corrected, may be apparent before the completion of the building or plant. On the other hand, significant defects may only become apparent long after the original work has been finished, requiring extensive remedial measures to rectify.
Q3: Who is responsible for construction defects?
A3: The responsibility for construction defects typically lies with the building contractor and its supply chain. If the defects are related to the construction process or the use of improper materials, the building contractor is primarily accountable. However, in design and build scenarios, the contractor may have claims against its designers and supply chain.
Q4: What is the difference between obvious and latent defects in construction?
A4: Construction defects can be classified as obvious or latent. Obvious defects are apparent during the construction phase, and liability is clear. Latent defects, on the other hand, remain undetected until after the completion of the project and the structure is in use, sometimes even years later.
Q5: How are construction defects different from the manifestation of defects?
A5: Construction defects and their manifestations are distinct but interconnected. A construction defect refers to the failure of the finished or partially completed construction to perform as required by the contract documents or accepted standards. The manifestation of a defect is the visible condition that arises as a result of the construction defect, providing evidence of a deeper problem. It is important to identify both the defect and its manifestation for effective resolution.